Monday, July 11, 2016

Sludge exposes a stink

The saga of David Lewis and the EPA’s failure to protect the public is summarized in this 2008 article published in Nature:

Online: Raking through sludge exposes a stink

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The accompanying editorial chastises the EPA for its non-action:

Online: Stuck in the mud

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Tuesday, July 5, 2016

10 Myths about biosolids

Ten Government-Industry Myths about Biosolids (download PDF)

Caroline Snyder Ph.D.*

MYTH NO. 1: For more than 2000 years industrial waste and sewage sludge have been land-applied as soil amendments. (Source: EPA i )

FACT: The myriad hazardous industrial chemical wastes found concentrated in modern treated sewage sludges (biosolids), including pesticides, pharmaceuticals, plasticizers, flame retardants and growth hormones to mention a few, did not even exist until recent decades.

MYTH NO. 2: Biosolids are nutrient-rich organic fertilizers. (Source: EPA ii )

FACT: It’s highly deceptive to call mixtures of many thousands of industrial chemical pollutants “nutrient-rich” simply because several of the pollutants are nitrogen and phosphorus compounds found in commercial fertilizers. Biosolids produced from sewage sludges generated in industrial urban centers are undoubtedly the most pollutant-rich materials on Earth. When applied to land, industrial pollutants in biosolids reenter aquatic systems and are magnified up the food chain. iii

MYTH NO. 3: Over 99% of biosolids is composed of water, organic matter, sand, silt, and common natural elements. (Source: NEBRA iv )

FACT: It’s also deceptive to call mixtures of many thousands of industrial chemical pollutants “natural,” especially when EPA and the biosolids industry are targeting consumers who use the words “natural” and “organic” to mean free of synthetic chemical contaminants.

MYTH NO. 4: Biosolids are essentially pathogen free. (Source: State of California v )

FACT: Many if not most pathogenic (disease-causing) bacteria and viruses can survive treatment processes used to produce biosolids (Class A and Class B); and many dangerous pathogens, such as Salmonella and Staphylococcus, can re-grow to high levels in biosolids, which is mostly comprised of human feces. vi New research indicates that sewage sludge treatment facilities are actually breeding grounds for antibiotic-resistant pathogens. vii

MYTH NO. 5: Infectious prions will not survive wastewater treatment and therefore are not present in land-applied biosolids. (Source: U. Arizona viii )

FACT: The latest research shows that prions survive wasterwater treatment processes. ix

MYTH NO. 6: Biosolids are not sources of pathogens or toxicants. Sludge syndrome is a somatic disease triggered by biosolids odors and by fears raised in the community and through the media. (Source: Mid-Atlantic Biosolids Association x )

FACT: Odors from biosolids are a warning that the material is emitting disease-causing pathogens and biological toxins, e.g., endotoxins. Peer-reviewed scientific studies have demonstrated that resulting health effects are not imagined but real. xi

MYTH NO. 7: Allegations of health problems linked to biosolids exposure are urban myths. (Source: NEBRA xii)

FACT: Many hundreds of sludge-exposed rural neighbors have reported chronic respiratory, skin and gastrointestinal conditions consistent with exposures to the types of chemical and biological contaminants found in biosolids. The relationship between land application of biosolids and such adverse health effects has been documented in valid scientific studies, including the peer-reviewed scientific literature. xiii

MYTH NO. 8: Treatment breaks down most organic chemical pollutants. (Source: NEBRA xiv )

FACT: EPA’s 2009 Targeted National Sewage Sludge Survey of 74 sewage treatment plants in 38 states, which sampled 145 industrial chemical pollutants, found them in every sample. xv Their concentration ranges often topped ppm-levels and higher, exceeding concentrations considered safe in drinking water by orders of magnitude. Moreover, the breakdown products from organic chemical pollutants are often more harmful than the parent compounds. xvi

MYTH NO. 9: Biosolids contaminants are tightly bound to soil and do not become bioavailable. According to Rufus Chaney, “You can put enough heavy metals in the soil to kill the crop but that crop is still safe for human consumption.” (Source: USDA xvii )

FACT: EPA and the USDA buried studies demonstrating heavy metals in biosolids exceeding current levels permitted by EPA caused liver and kidney damage in farm animals grazing on fields treated with biosolids. xviii After EPA promulgated the current sludge rule in 1992, it worked with the Water Environment Federation to establish the “National Biosolids Public Acceptance Campaign.” EPA’s Office of Inspector General investigated EPA’s efforts to silence Dr. David Lewis, one of its top scientists who documented adverse health effects, and concluded that EPA could not assure the public that land application of biosolids is safe. xix

MYTH NO. 10: US sludge regulations that govern the land application of biosolids (40 CFR Part 503) are completely protective, based on science and valid risk assessment models. (Source: NEBRA xx )

FACT: A 1999 Cornell Waste Management Institute paper concluded that the 503s do not protect human health, agriculture, or the environment. xxi The 503s regulate only nine metals plus inorganic nutrients (N, P). Even though industry can legally discharge any amount of hazardous waste into sewage treatment plants, the rules are based on chemical-by-chemical risk assessment which ignores the effects of mixtures and interactions. The 2002 NRC biosolids panel recognized this andconcluded that u201cis not possible to conduct a risk assessment for biosolids at this time (or perhaps ever) that will lead to risk-management strategies that will provide adequate health protection without some form of ongoing monitoring and surveillance . . . the degree of uncertainty requires some form of active health and environmental tracking. xxii


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How safe is sludge?

The Texas Administrative Code (TAC) addresses “Pathogen Reduction” in sludge with the following restrictions. That should tell you something about how “safe” sludge is:

(3) Site restrictions.

(A) Food crops with harvested parts totally above the land surface that touch the sewage sludge/soil mixture must not be harvested from the land for at least 14 months after the application of sewage sludge.

(B) Food crops with harvested parts below the surface of the land must not be harvested for at least 20 months after application of sewage sludge when the sewage sludge remains on the land surface for four months or longer prior to incorporation into the soil.

(C) Food crops with harvested parts below the surface of the land must not be harvested for at least 38 months after application of sewage sludge when the sewage sludge remains on the land surface for less than four months prior to the incorporation into the soil.

(D) Food crops, feed crops, and fiber crops must not be harvested for at least 30 days after application of sewage sludge.

(E) Animals must not be allowed to graze on the land for at least 30 days after application of sewage sludge.

(F) Turf grown on land where sewage sludge is applied may not be harvested for at least one year after application of sewage sludge when the harvested turf is placed on either land with a high potential for public exposure or a lawn.

(G) Public access to land with a high potential for public exposure must be restricted for at least one year after application of sewage sludge.

(H) Public access to land with a low potential for public exposure must be restricted for at least 30 days after application of the sewage sludge.

Texas Administrative Code
RULE ยง312.82 Pathogen Reduction

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But even the supposedly “safe” sludge - Dillo Dirt - that you can buy at Home Deport is not so safe. You may remember that before the Austin City Limits Music Festival in 2009, Dillo Dirt was applied to the Zilker Park turf. When it rained and the turf turned to muck, the pathogens in the sludge sickened a number of people. This was not Austin’s finest hour thanks to a substance that is potentially very dangerous. You can read about that fiasco here.

Unfortunately pathogens are not the only danger lurking in sewage sludge. There are other contaminants in sludge from household use AND industrial waste AND agricultural/road runoff etc. that may include - heavy metals, synthetic chemicals & pesticides, hydrocarbons, petrochemicals, organochlorines, pharmaceuticals, steroids & hormones etc. Monitoring of these substances is limited. Regulatory ‘truth’ once again in denial of reality.