Monday, July 11, 2016

Video: Cedar Creek flood

This video was taken from the north side of Cedar Creek looking across the creek toward the northwestern corner of the Wallace Ranch. The flood meets the treeline about 25-30 feet above the creek-bed. If you could see under the treeline, the ranch pasture used to grow oats would be visible. This is by no means the highest the creek gets during floods.

Sludge exposes a stink

The saga of David Lewis and the EPA’s failure to protect the public is summarized in this 2008 article published in Nature:

Online: Raking through sludge exposes a stink

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The accompanying editorial chastises the EPA for its non-action:

Online: Stuck in the mud

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Wednesday, July 6, 2016

More Harm than Good

From Mother Earth News Biosolids: More Harm than Good two interviews with David Lewis by Lidia Epp.


David Lewis, Ph.D., formerly a senior-level research microbiologist at EPA-ORD, was terminated by EPA for publishing two articles in Nature that raised concerns over the 503 sludge rule. He currently serves as director of research for the Focus for Health Foundation. Dr. Lewis kindly agreed to an interview for the MOTHER EARTH NEWS blog addressing the issue of agricultural use of sewage and industrial sludge, aka – biosolids. He is one of the most prominent scientific voices in the growing opposition to biosolids land application. Dr. Lewis’ publications are frequently cited as an example of solid, unbiased scientific evidence of the danger posed by this practice.

Part 1 - February 18, 2016: read online or download PDF
Part 2 - February 18, 2016: read online or download PDF

Tuesday, July 5, 2016

A Whistleblower’s Story

How EPA Faked the Entire Science of Sewage Sludge Safety


US EPA’s 503 sludge rule (1993) allows treated sewage sludges, aka biosolids, to be land-applied to farms, forests, parks, school playgrounds, home gardens and other private and public lands. According to a recent EPA survey [1], biosolids contain a wide range of mutagenic and neurotoxic chemicals, which are present at a million-fold higher concentrations (ppm versus ppt) compared with their levels in polluted air and water (1). Biosolids contain all of the lipophilic (fat-soluble) chemical wastes that once polluted our rivers and lakes , but which now settle out at sewage treatment plants and become concentrated in sewage sludges. Most biosolids contain ppm concentrations of heavy metals, including chromium, lead, and mercury. They contain similarly high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and semi-volatiles, such as bis (2-Ethylhexyl) phthalate, Benzo(a)pyrene), and polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners (PBDE flame retardants). Most biosolids also contain pathogenic agents and ppm levels of many common drugs, including ciprofloxacin (Cipro), carbamazepine (Tegretol, Equetro), and fluoxetine (Prozac).

While working at EPA Dr David Lewis published evidence that teenager Shayne Conner (of New Hampshire) died and other neighbors were harmed from living near land applied with sewage sludge (Lewis et al 2002[2] ). He furthermore became involved after dairy herds of two Georgia farms (McElmurray and Boyce) were poisoned after grazing on sludged land. He testified in lawsuits following each incident, against his employer (EPA), which is where many of the following depositions were obtained. The following article is an excerpt from Chapter 4 (Sludge Magic) of his new book (Science for Sale: How the US Government Uses Powerful Corporations and Leading Universities to Support Government Policies, Silence Top Scientists, Jeopardize Our Health, and Protect Corporate Profits [3] ).

The lawsuits referred to are Lewis v. EPA 1999; Lewis v. EPA 2003; and USA, ex rel. Lewis, McElmurray and Boyce v. Walker et al. 2009.

The depositions below piece together an unprecedented and coordinated multi-agency scientific scheme involving EPA, USDA, local and city municipalities, Synagro Technologies (a waste management company), various universities, and the National Academies of Science.

The effort was intended to misleadingly present sewage sludge as scientifically safe, to hide the evidence that it was not, to deliberately misreport the contents of municipal sludges, and smear David Lewis with a scientific misconduct charge after he blew the whistle.

Read online
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10 Myths about biosolids

Ten Government-Industry Myths about Biosolids (download PDF)

Caroline Snyder Ph.D.*

MYTH NO. 1: For more than 2000 years industrial waste and sewage sludge have been land-applied as soil amendments. (Source: EPA i )

FACT: The myriad hazardous industrial chemical wastes found concentrated in modern treated sewage sludges (biosolids), including pesticides, pharmaceuticals, plasticizers, flame retardants and growth hormones to mention a few, did not even exist until recent decades.

MYTH NO. 2: Biosolids are nutrient-rich organic fertilizers. (Source: EPA ii )

FACT: It’s highly deceptive to call mixtures of many thousands of industrial chemical pollutants “nutrient-rich” simply because several of the pollutants are nitrogen and phosphorus compounds found in commercial fertilizers. Biosolids produced from sewage sludges generated in industrial urban centers are undoubtedly the most pollutant-rich materials on Earth. When applied to land, industrial pollutants in biosolids reenter aquatic systems and are magnified up the food chain. iii

MYTH NO. 3: Over 99% of biosolids is composed of water, organic matter, sand, silt, and common natural elements. (Source: NEBRA iv )

FACT: It’s also deceptive to call mixtures of many thousands of industrial chemical pollutants “natural,” especially when EPA and the biosolids industry are targeting consumers who use the words “natural” and “organic” to mean free of synthetic chemical contaminants.

MYTH NO. 4: Biosolids are essentially pathogen free. (Source: State of California v )

FACT: Many if not most pathogenic (disease-causing) bacteria and viruses can survive treatment processes used to produce biosolids (Class A and Class B); and many dangerous pathogens, such as Salmonella and Staphylococcus, can re-grow to high levels in biosolids, which is mostly comprised of human feces. vi New research indicates that sewage sludge treatment facilities are actually breeding grounds for antibiotic-resistant pathogens. vii

MYTH NO. 5: Infectious prions will not survive wastewater treatment and therefore are not present in land-applied biosolids. (Source: U. Arizona viii )

FACT: The latest research shows that prions survive wasterwater treatment processes. ix

MYTH NO. 6: Biosolids are not sources of pathogens or toxicants. Sludge syndrome is a somatic disease triggered by biosolids odors and by fears raised in the community and through the media. (Source: Mid-Atlantic Biosolids Association x )

FACT: Odors from biosolids are a warning that the material is emitting disease-causing pathogens and biological toxins, e.g., endotoxins. Peer-reviewed scientific studies have demonstrated that resulting health effects are not imagined but real. xi

MYTH NO. 7: Allegations of health problems linked to biosolids exposure are urban myths. (Source: NEBRA xii)

FACT: Many hundreds of sludge-exposed rural neighbors have reported chronic respiratory, skin and gastrointestinal conditions consistent with exposures to the types of chemical and biological contaminants found in biosolids. The relationship between land application of biosolids and such adverse health effects has been documented in valid scientific studies, including the peer-reviewed scientific literature. xiii

MYTH NO. 8: Treatment breaks down most organic chemical pollutants. (Source: NEBRA xiv )

FACT: EPA’s 2009 Targeted National Sewage Sludge Survey of 74 sewage treatment plants in 38 states, which sampled 145 industrial chemical pollutants, found them in every sample. xv Their concentration ranges often topped ppm-levels and higher, exceeding concentrations considered safe in drinking water by orders of magnitude. Moreover, the breakdown products from organic chemical pollutants are often more harmful than the parent compounds. xvi

MYTH NO. 9: Biosolids contaminants are tightly bound to soil and do not become bioavailable. According to Rufus Chaney, “You can put enough heavy metals in the soil to kill the crop but that crop is still safe for human consumption.” (Source: USDA xvii )

FACT: EPA and the USDA buried studies demonstrating heavy metals in biosolids exceeding current levels permitted by EPA caused liver and kidney damage in farm animals grazing on fields treated with biosolids. xviii After EPA promulgated the current sludge rule in 1992, it worked with the Water Environment Federation to establish the “National Biosolids Public Acceptance Campaign.” EPA’s Office of Inspector General investigated EPA’s efforts to silence Dr. David Lewis, one of its top scientists who documented adverse health effects, and concluded that EPA could not assure the public that land application of biosolids is safe. xix

MYTH NO. 10: US sludge regulations that govern the land application of biosolids (40 CFR Part 503) are completely protective, based on science and valid risk assessment models. (Source: NEBRA xx )

FACT: A 1999 Cornell Waste Management Institute paper concluded that the 503s do not protect human health, agriculture, or the environment. xxi The 503s regulate only nine metals plus inorganic nutrients (N, P). Even though industry can legally discharge any amount of hazardous waste into sewage treatment plants, the rules are based on chemical-by-chemical risk assessment which ignores the effects of mixtures and interactions. The 2002 NRC biosolids panel recognized this andconcluded that u201cis not possible to conduct a risk assessment for biosolids at this time (or perhaps ever) that will lead to risk-management strategies that will provide adequate health protection without some form of ongoing monitoring and surveillance . . . the degree of uncertainty requires some form of active health and environmental tracking. xxii


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